Helligkorsgade, Kølding, DK (built 1589; photo from WikimediaCommons by User:Mahlum, 2006)
Danish Demes
a Regional DNA Project for Danish Americans and Danes around the World
Borches gård, Kolding, DK (built 1595; photo from WikimediaCommons by User:Mahlum, 2006)
 
What the Numbers in the U.S. Federal and State Censuses Mean
Below are the column headings for the 1790-1930 U.S. Census Population Schedules, plus some state census and other census schedules.  Items are listed in the order they appear on the schedules as columns, left to right.  Be aware that there are some differences from state to state, for example, northern states are apt to omit columns for slaves.  With regard to immigration, "Na" means naturalized, "Al" means alien, and "Pa" means papers of intent (to become a citizien) have been filed.

Also, see below, for a discussion on improving the ease and accuracy of dealing with long series of numerical data.

1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1865 1870 1875 1880 1885 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930
Alternate 1820 Form (w/o slaves) 1890 Veterans Schedules 1900 Naval/Military Form 1920 Naval/Military Form
 
1790
1. free white males 16 and over
2. free white males 15 and under
3. free white females
4. all other free people
5. slaves

The columns in Montgomery Co., MD, were non-standard:
1.  free white males of sixteen years and upwards including heads of families
2.  free white males under sixteen years
3.  free white females including heads of families
4.  free yellow and black males of sixteen years and upwards
5.  free yellow and black males under sixteen years
6.  free yellow and black females
7.  slaves

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1800 and 1810
These headings and labels are taken verbatim from an actual census sheet, except for Column Number (the columns on the sheet are not numbered) and the "Preferred" Label column.  The "Preferred" Label is preferred because it eliminates the ambiguity of the "Numerical" Label. 
Heading Text Label Numerical 
Label
Preferred
Label
Col.
No.
FREE
WHITE
MALES
Under ten years of age. to 10 9 or under 1
Of ten and under sixteen. 10 to 16 10 - 15 2
Of sixteen and under twenty-six,
including heads of families.
16 to 26 16 - 25 3
Of twenty-six and under forty five,
including heads of families.
26 to 45 26 - 44 4
Of forty-five and upwards,
including heads of families.
45, &c. 45 or over 5
FREE
WHITE
FEMALES
Under ten years of age. to 10 9 or under 6
Of ten and under sixteen. 10 to 16 10 - 15 7
Of sixteen and under twenty-six,
including heads of families.
16 to 26 16 - 25 8
Of twenty-six and under forty five,
including heads of families.
26 to 45 26 - 44 9
Of forty-five and upwards,
including heads of families.
45, &c. 45 or over 10
  All other free persons,
except Indians not taxed.
    11
  Slaves.     12

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1820
  1. free white males, 9 and under
  2. free white males, 10-15
  3. free white males, 16-18  [these individuals will be duplicated in the next age category]
  4. free white males, 16-25
  5. free white males, 26-44
  6. free white males, 45 and over

  7. free white females, 9 and under
  8. free white females, 10-15
  9. free white females, 16-25
10. free white females, 26-44
11. free white females, 45 and over

12. foreigners not naturalized

13. people in agriculture
14. people in commerce
15. people in manufacture

16. male slaves, 13 and under
17. male slaves, 14-25
18. male slaves, 26-44
19. male slaves, 45 and over

20. female slaves, 13 and under
21. female slaves, 14-25
22. female slaves, 26-44
23. female slaves, 45 and over

24. free male colored persons, 13 and under
25. free male colored persons, 14-25
26. free male colored persons, 26-44
27. free male colored persons, 45 and over

28. free female colored persons, 13 and under
29. free female colored persons, 14-25
30. free female colored persons, 26-44
31. free female colored persons, 45 and over

32. all other persons, except Indians not taxed

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Alternate 1820 Form — Used in Perry Co., PA, and Possibly in Other Non-Slave States
  1. free white males, 9 and under
  2. free white males, 10-15
  3. free white males, 16-18  [these individuals will be duplicated in the next age category]
  4. free white males, 16-25
  5. free white males, 26-44
  6. free white males, 45 and over

  7. free white females, 9 and under
  8. free white females, 10-15
  9. free white females, 16-25
10. free white females, 26-44
11. free white females, 45 and over

12.  Number of persons engaged in Agriculture.
13.  Number of persons engaged in Manufactures.
14.  Foreigners not naturalized.

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1830
These headings and labels are taken verbatim from an actual census sheet, except for Column Number (the columns on the sheet are not numbered) and the "Preferred" Label column.  The "Preferred" Label eliminates the ambiguity of the "Numerical" Label that is most often used to describe the age classes.
Main Head Sub Head Text Label Numerical 
Label
"Preferred"
Label
Col.
No.
FREE 
WHITE
PERSONS
MALES Under five years of age. under 5 4 or under 1
Of five and under ten. 5 to 10 5 - 9 2
Of ten and under fifteen. 10 to 15 10 - 14 3
Of fifteen and under twenty. 15 to 20 15 - 19 4
Of twenty and under thirty. 20 to 30 20 - 29 5
Of thirty and under forty. 30 to 40 30 - 39 6
Of forty and under fifty. 40 to 50 40 - 49 7
Of fifty and under sixty. 50 to 60 50 - 59 8
Of sixty and under seventy. 60 to 70 60 - 69 9
Of seventy and under eighty. 70 to 80 70 - 79 10
Of eighty and under ninety. 80 to 90 80 - 89 11
Of ninety and under one hundred. 90 to 100 90 - 99 12
Of one hundred and upwards. 100, &c. 100 or over 13
FEMALES Under five years of age. under 5 4 or under 14
Of five and under ten. 5 to 10 5 - 9 15
Of ten and under fifteen. 10 to 15 10 - 14 16
Of fifteen and under twenty. 15 to 20 15 - 19 17
Of twenty and under thirty. 20 to 30 20 - 29 18
Of thirty and under forty. 30 to 40 30 - 39 19
Of forty and under fifty. 40 to 50 40 - 49 20
Of fifty and under sixty. 50 to 60 50 - 59 21
Of sixty and under seventy. 60 to 70 60 - 69 22
Of seventy and under eighty. 70 to 80 70 - 79 23
Of eighty and under ninety. 80 to 90 80 - 89 24
Of ninety and under one hundred. 90 to 100 90 - 99 25
Of one hundred and upwards. 100, &c. 100 or over 26
27. male slaves, 9 and under
28. male slaves, 10-23
29. male slaves, 24-35
30. male slaves, 36-54
31. male slaves, 55-99
32. male slaves, 100 and over

33. female slaves, 9 and under
34. female slaves, 10-23
35. female slaves, 24-35
36. female slaves, 36-54
37. female slaves, 55-99
38. female slaves, 100 and over

39. white persons included in the forgoing, deaf and dumb, 13 and under
40. white persons included in the forgoing, deaf and dumb, 14-24
41. white persons included in the forgoing, deaf and dumb, 25 and over
42. white persons included in the forgoing, who are blind
43. white persons included in the forgoing, aliens - foreigners not naturalized

45. free black males, 9 and under
46. free black males, 10-23
47. free black males, 24-35
48. free black males, 36-54
49. free black males, 55-99
50. free black males, 100 and over

51. free black females, 9 and under
52. free black females, 10-23
53. free black females, 24-35
54. free black females, 36-54
55. free black females, 55-99
56. free black females, 100 and over

57. free black persons and slaves, deaf and dumb, 13 and under
58. free black persons and slaves, deaf and dumb, 14-25
59. free black persons and slaves, deaf and dumb, 25 and over
60. free black persons and slaves, who are blind

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1840
These headings and labels are taken verbatim from an actual census sheet, except for Column Number (the columns on the sheet are not numbered) and the "Preferred" Label column.  The "Preferred" Label eliminates the ambiguity of the "Numerical" Label that is most often used to describe the age classes.
Main Head Sub Head Text Label Numerical 
Label
"Preferred"
Label
Col.
No.
FREE 
WHITE 
PERSONS
MALES Under five years of age. under 5 4 or under 1
Of five and under ten. 5 to 10 5 - 9 2
Of ten and under fifteen. 10 to 15 10 - 14 3
Of fifteen and under twenty. 15 to 20 15 - 19 4
Of twenty and under thirty. 20 to 30 20 - 29 5
Of thirty and under forty. 30 to 40 30 - 39 6
Of forty and under fifty. 40 to 50 40 - 49 7
Of fifty and under sixty. 50 to 60 50 - 59 8
Of sixty and under seventy. 60 to 70 60 - 69 9
Of seventy and under eighty. 70 to 80 70 - 79 10
Of eighty and under ninety. 80 to 90 80 - 89 11
Of ninety and under one hundred. 90 to 100 90 - 99 12
Of one hundred and upwards. 100, &c. 100 or over 13
FEMALES Under five years of age. under 5 4 or under 14
Of five and under ten. 5 to 10 5 - 9 15
Of ten and under fifteen. 10 to 15 10 - 14 16
Of fifteen and under twenty. 15 to 20 15 - 19 17
Of twenty and under thirty. 20 to 30 20 - 29 18
Of thirty and under forty. 30 to 40 30 - 39 19
Of forty and under fifty. 40 to 50 40 - 49 20
Of fifty and under sixty. 50 to 60 50 - 59 21
Of sixty and under seventy. 60 to 70 60 - 69 22
Of seventy and under eighty. 70 to 80 70 - 79 23
Of eighty and under ninety. 80 to 90 80 - 89 24
Of ninety and under one hundred. 90 to 100 90 - 99 25
Of one hundred and upwards. 100, &c. 100 or over 26
NOTE:  some forms have free colored before slaves with a Total column before employments.

27. male slaves, 9 and under
28. male slaves, 10-23
29. male slaves, 24-35
30. male slaves, 36-54
31. male slaves, 55-99
32. male slaves, 100 and over

33. female slaves, 9 and under
34. female slaves, 10-23
35. female slaves, 24-35
36. female slaves, 36-54
37. female slaves, 55-99
38. female slaves, 100 and over

39. number of persons in each family employed in
a. mining
b. agriculture
c. commerce
d. manufactures and trades
e. navigation of the ocean
f. navigation of canals, lakes, and rivers
g. learned professionals and engineers

40. name and age of Revolutionary War pensioners

41. free colored males, 9 and under
42. free colored males, 10-23
43. free colored males, 24-35
44. free colored males, 36-54
45. free colored males, 55-99
46. free colored males, 100 and over

47. free colored females, 9 and under
48. free colored females, 10-23
49. free colored females, 24-35
50. free colored females, 36-54
51. free colored females, 55-99
52. free colored females, 100 and over

53. white persons included in the forgoing, deaf and dumb, 13 and under
54. white persons included in the forgoing, deaf and dumb, 14-24
55. white persons included in the forgoing, deaf and dumb, 25 and older
56. white persons included in the forgoing, who are blind
57. white persons included in the forgoing, idiotic or insane
58. white persons included in the forgoing, illiterate males over 21
59. white persons included in the forgoing, aliens - foreigners not naturalized

60. free blacks and slaves included in the forgoing, deaf and dumb, 13 and under
61. free blacks and slaves included in the forgoing, deaf and dumb, 14-24
62. free blacks and slaves included in the forgoing, deaf and dumb, 25 and older
63. free blacks and slaves included in the forgoing, who are blind
64. free blacks and slaves included in the forgoing, idiotic or insane

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1850
  1. Dwelling #
  2. Family #
  3. The name of every person whose usual place of abode on the first day of June, 1850, was in this family.
  4. Age
  5. Sex
  6. Color - white, black or mulatto.
  7. Profession, occupation, or trade of each male person 16 or over.
  8. Value of real estate owned.
  9. Place of birth, naming the state, territory, or country.
10. Married with the year.
11. Attended school within the year.
12. Persons 21 or over who cannot read and write.
13. Whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper, or convict.

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1860
 1. Dwelling #
 2. Family #
 3. The name of every person whose usual place of abode on the first day of June, 1860, was in this family.
 4. Age
 5. Sex
 6. Color - white, black to mulatto.
 7. Profession, occupation, or trade of each male person 16 or over.
 8. Value of real estate owned.
 9. Value of personal estate.
10. Place of birth, naming the state, territory, or country.
11. Married with the year.
12. Attended school within the year.
13. Persons 21 or over who cannot read and write.
14. Whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper, or convict.

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1865
1865 Kansas State Census

 1. Dwelling-houses — numbered in the order of vivitation.
 2. Families numbered in the order of visitation.
 3. The name of every person whose usual place of abode on the first day of May, 1865, was in this family.
DESCRIPTION.
 4. Age.
 5. Sex.
 6. Color - White, black, or mulatto.
 7. Regiment.
 8. Company.
 9. Profession, Occupation or Trade of each person, male and female, over 15 years of age.
VALUE OF ESTATE OWNED.
10. Value of Eeal Estate.
11. Value of Personal Estate.
12. Place of Birth, Naming the State, Territory, or Country.
13. Married or Single.
14. Attended school within the year.
15. Persons over 20 y'rs of age who cannot read Y write.
16. Whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper, or convict.

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1870
 1. Dwelling #
 2. Family #
 3. The name of every person whose usual place of abode on the first day of June, 1870, was in this family.
 4. Age at last birthday. If under 1 year, give months in fractions, thus 2/12.
 5. Sex
 6. Color - White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese, Indian.
 7. Profession, occupation, or trade of each person, male and female.
 8. Value of real estate.
 9. Value of personal estate.
10. Place of birth, naming state or territory of U.S.; or the country, if of foreign birth.
11. Father of foreign birth.
12. Mother of foreign birth.
13. If born within the year, state month (Jan., Feb., etc.).
14. If married within the year, state the month (Jan., Feb., etc.).
15. Attended school within the year.
16. Cannot read.
17. Cannot write.
18. Whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic.
19. Male citizens of U.S. of 21 years of age and upwards.
20. Male citizens of U.S. of 21 years of age and upwards, where right to vote is denied or abridged on other grounds than rebellion or other crime.

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1875
1875 Kansas State Census

 1. Dwelling Houses, numbered in the order of visitation.
 2. Families, numbered in the order of visitation.
 3. The name of every person whose usual place of abode on the first day of March, 1875, was in this family.
DESCRIPTION
 4. Age at last birthday. If under 1 year, give months in fractions, thus — 3-12.
 5. Sex. Male (M), Female (F).
 6. Color.  White (W), Black (B), Mulatto (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I).
 7. Profession, Occupation or Trade of each person, Male or Female.
 8. Value of Real Estate.
 9. Value of Personal Pstate.
10. Place of Birth — naming State or Territory of U.S., or the country, if of Foreign birth.
11. Where from to Kansas — naming State or Territory of U.S., or country, if a Foreigner.
12. Attended school within the year.
ILLITERACY.
— CANNOT READ.
13. Persons 10 to 15 yrs. of age.
14. Persons 15 to 21 yrs. of age.
15. Persons 21 years of age and over.
— CANNOT WRITE.
16. Persons 10 to 15 yrs. of age.
17. Persons 15 to 21 yrs. of age.
18. Persons 21 years of age and over.
— CANNOT READ OR WRITE.
19. Persons 10 to 15 yrs. of age.
20. Persons 15 to 21 yrs. of age.
21. Persons 21 years of age and over.

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1880 and 1890
The entire 1890 census was lost to fire, except for a few counties.
.  Name of Street
.  House Number

 1. Dwelling #
 2. Family #
 3. The name of every person whose usual place of abode on the first day of June, 1880, was in this family.
 4. Color - White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese, Indian
 5. Sex
 6. Age at last birthday prior to June 1, 1880.  If under 1 year, give months in fractions, thus 2/12.
 7. If born within the Census year, give month.
 8. Relationship of each person to the head of this family - whether wife, son, daughter, servant, boarder, or other.
 9. Single
10. Married
11. Widowed or divorced.
12. Married during Census year.
13. Profession, occupation, or trade of each person, male and female.
14. Number of months person has been unemployed during the Census year.
15. Is the person [on the day of the numerator's visit] sick or temporarily disabled, so as to be unable to attend to ordinary business or duties? If so, what is the sickness or disability?
16. Blind
17. Deaf and dumb
18. Idiotic
19. Insane
20. Maimed, crippled, bedridden, or otherwise disabled.
21. Attended school within the Census year.
22. Cannot read
23. Cannot write
24. Place of birth of this person, naming state or territory of U.S. or the country, if of foreign birth.
25. Place of birth of the FATHER of this person, naming state or territory of U.S. or the country, if of foreign birth.
26. Place of birth of the MOTHER of this person, naming state or territory of U.S. or the country, if of foreign birth.

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1885
1885 Kansas State Census

  1.  Dwelling House, numbered in the order of visitation.
  2.  Families, numbered in the order of visitation.
  3.  The name of every person whose place of abode on the first day of March, 1885, was in this family.
  4.  Age at last birthday.  If under 1 year, give months, thus—3 M.
  5.  Sex. Male (M), Female (F).
  6.  Color. White (W), Black (B), Mulatto (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I).
  7.  Married (/).
  8.  Single (/).
  9.  Widow or Widower (/).
10.  Profession, Occupation or Trade of each Person, Male or Female, 10 years old and over.
11.  Place of Birth, naming State or Territory of U.S., or the country, if of Foreign birth.
12.  Where from to Kansas, naming State or Territory of U.S., or country, if a Foreigner.
13.  Trade or Profession being learned by each Person, Male or Female, under 21 years of age.
14.  Attended school within the year.
ILLITERACY.
CANNOT READ OR WRITE.
15.  Persons 10 to 15 yrs. of age.
16.  Persons 15 to 21 yrs. of age.
17.  Persons 21 years of age and over.

1890 Veterans Schedules
  1.  From Schedule No. 1: Home No.
  2.  From Schedule No. 1: Family No.
  3.  Names of Surviving Soldiers, Sailors, and Marines, and Widows.
  4.  Rank.
  5.  Company.
  6.  Name of Regiment or Vessel.
  7.  Date of Enlistment.
  8.  Date of Discharge.
  9.  Length of Service.
10.  Post-Office Address.
11.  Disability Incurred.
12.  Remarks.

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1900
 1. Dwelling #
 2. Family #
 3. The name of every person whose place of abode on the first day of June, 1900, was in this family.  Enter surname first, then the given name and middle initial, if any.  Include every person living on June 1, 1900. Omit children born since June 1, 1900.
 4. Relationship of each person to the head of this family - whether wife, son, daughter, servant, boarder, or other.

 5. Personal description: Color or race.
 6. Personal description: Sex
 7. Personal description: Date of birth / Month.
 7. Personal description: Date of birth / Year. [two columns in one]
 8. Personal description: Age at last birthday
 9. Personal description: Whether single, married, widowed, or divorced.
10. Personal description: Number of years married.
11. Personal description: Mother of how many children.
12. Personal description: Number of children living.

13. Nativity: place of birth of this person.
14. Nativity: place of birth of FATHER of this person.
15. Nativity: place of birth of MOTHER of this person.

16. Citizenship: year of immigration to the U.S.
17. Citizenship: number of years in the U.S.
18. Naturalization.

19. Occupation.
20. Months not employed.

21. Education: attended school (in months)
22. Education: can read
23. Education: can write
24. Education: can speak English

25. Ownership of home: owned or rented
26. Ownership of home: owned free or mortaged
27. Ownership of home: farm or house
28. Ownership of home: number of farm schedule

Additional Columns on Indian Population Schedules:

29.  Other Name, If Any.
30.  Nativity:  Tribe of this Indian.
31.  Nativity:  Tribe of the Father of this Indian.
32.  Nativity:  Tribe of the Mother of this Indian.
33.  Mixed Blood:  Has this Indiana any white blood; if so, how much?
34.  Conjugal Condition:  Is this Indian, if married, living in polygamy?
35.  Citizenship:  Is this Indian taxed?
36.  Citizenship:  Year of acquiring citizenship.
37.  Citizenship:  Was citizenship acquired by allotment?
38.  Dwellings:  Is this Indian living in a fixed or in a movable dwelling?

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1900 Naval/Military Form
  1.  Name.

  2.  Rank, Grade, or Class.

RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES.
  3.  City or Town.
  4.  State.
  5.  Street and Number.

PERSONAL DESCRIPTION.
  6.  Color or race.
  7.  Sex.
  8.  Date of Birth: Month | Year.
  9.  Age at last birthday.
10.  Whether single, married, widowed, or divorced.
11.  Number of years married.

NATIVITY.
12.  Place of birth of this Person.
13.  Place of birth of Father of this person.
14.  Place of birth of Mother of this person.

CITIZENSHIP.
15. Year of immigration to the United States.
16.  Number of years in the United States.
17.  Naturalization.

EDUCATION.
18.  Can read.
19.  Can write.
20.  Can speak English.

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1910
 1. Dwelling #
 2. Family #

 3. The name of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first, then the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910.
 4. Relationship of each person to the head of this family - whether wife, son, daughter, servant, boarder, or other.

 5. Personal description: sex.
 6. Personal description: color or race.
 7. Personal description: age at last birthday.
 8. Personal description: whether single, married, widowed, or divorced.
 9. Personal description: number of years married.
10. Personal description: mother of how many children.
11. Personal description: number of children living.

12. Nativity: place of birth of this person.
13. Nativity: place of birth of FATHER of this person.
14. Nativity: place of birth of MOTHER of this person.

15. Citizenship: year of immigration to the U.S.
16. Citizenship: whether naturalized or alien.
17. Whether able to speak English; or, if not, give language spoken.

18. Occupation: trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, salesman, laborer, etc.
19. Occupation: general nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, farm, etc.
20. Occupation: whether an employer, employee or working on own account.
21. Occupation: whether out of work on April 10, 1910, if an employee.
22. Occupation: number of weeks out of work during year 1909 if an employee.

23. Education: whether able to read.
24. Education: whether able to write.
25. Education: attended school any time since September 1, 1909.

26. Ownership of home: owned or rented.
27. Ownership of home: owned free or mortgaged.
28. Ownership of home: farm or house.
29. Ownership of home: number of farm schedule.

30. Whether survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy.
31. Whether blind (both eyes).
32. Whether deaf and dumb.

Additional Columns on Indian Population Schedules:

33.  Tribal Relations:  Tribe of this Indian.
34.  Tribal Relations:  Tribe of Father of this Indian.
35.  Tribal Relations:  Tribe of Mother of this Indian.
36.  Proportions of Indian and Other Blood:  Indian.
37.  Proportions of Indian and Other Blood:  White.
38.  Proportions of Indian and Other Blood:  Negro.
39.  Number of times married.
40.  Whether now living in polygamy.
41.  If living in polygamy, whether the wives are sisters.
42.  Graduated from what educational institutions.
43.  Is this Indian taxed.
44.  If Indian has received allotment, give year of allotment.
45.  Residing on his own lands.
46.  Living in civilized or aboriginal dwelling.

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1920
All of the original 1920 census schedules were destroyed by act of Congress; only microfilm copies remain.
PLACE OF ABODE.
 1. Street, avenue, road, etc.
 2. House number or farm.
 3. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation.
 4. Number of family in order of visitation.

 5. Name of each person whose place of abode on January 1, 1920 was in this family. Enter surname first, then given and middle initial, if any. Omit children born since January 1, 1920.
 6. Relationship of each person to the head of this family - whether wife, son, daughter, servant, boarder, or other.

TENURE.
 7. Home owned or rented.
 8. If owned, free or mortgaged.

PERSONAL DESCRIPTION.
 9. Sex.
10. Color or race.
11. Age at last birthday.
12. Whether single, married, widowed, or divorced.

CITIZENSHIP.
13. Year of immmigration to the U.S.
14. Whether naturalized or alien.
15. If naturalized, give the year.

EDUCATION.
16. Attended school any time since September 1, 1919.
17. Whether able to read.
18. Whether able to write.

NATIVITY.
19. Place of birth of this person.
20. Mother tongue of this person.
21. Place of birth of FATHER.
22. Mother tongue of FATHER.
23. Place of birth of MOTHER.
24. Mother tongue of MOTHER.

25. Whether able to speak English; or, if not, give language spoken.

OCCUPATION.
26. Trade, profession, or particular kind of work done, as spinner, salesman, laborer, etc.
27. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, farm, etc.
28. Whether an employer, employee, or working on own account.

29. Number of farm schedule.

There was a statistical study done in 1923 on coal miners listed in the 1920 census.
The codes used were:
MH - Coal miners who were also the heads of their households
BD - Coal miners who were boarders in a household
BWF - Coal miners who lived in their parents' household
USC - Colored coal miners who were born in the United States
USW - White coal miners who were born in the United States
Because these codes have no genealogical significance, I do not extract them.

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1920 Naval/Military Form
1. NAME.

2. RANK OR RELATION.

RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES.
3. State.
4. City of Town.
5. Street and [Number?].

PERSONAL DESCRIPTION.
6. Sex.
7. Color or Race.
8. Age at last birthday
9. Single, married, widowed, or divorced.

CITIZENSHIP.
10. Year of Immigration to the United States.
11. Naturalized or Alien.
12. If naturalized, year of naturalization.

EDUCATION.
13. Attended school any time since Sept. 1, 1919.
14. Whether able to read.
15. Whether able to write.

NATIVITY AND MOTHER TONGUE.
PERSON.
16. Place of birth.
17. Mother tongue.
FATHER.
18. Place of birth.
19. Mother tongue.
MOTHER.
20. Place of birth.
21. Mother tongue.

22. Whether able to speak English.

OCCUPATION.
23. Trade, professon, or particular kind of work done…

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1930
PLACE OF ABODE
1.  Street, avenue, road, etc.
2.  House number (in cities and towns).
3.  Number of dwelling House in order of visitation.
4.  Number of family in order of visitation.

NAME
5.  Name of each person whose place of abode on April 1, 1930, was in this family.  Enter Surname first, then the given name and middle initial, if any.  Include very person living on April 1, 1930.  Omit children born since April 1, 1930.

RELATION
6.  Relationship of this person to the head of the family.

HOME DATA
7.  Home owned or rented.
8.  Value of home, if owned, or monthly rental, if rented.
9.  Radio set.
10.  Does this family live on a farm?

PERSONAL DESCRIPTION
11.  Sex.
12.  Color or race.
13.  Age at last birthday.
14.  Marital condition.
15.  Age at first marriage.

EDUCATION
16.  Attended school or college any time since Sept. 1, 1929.
17.  Whether able to read and write.

PLACE OF BIRTH
18.  PERSON.
19.  FATHER.
20.  MOTHER.

MOTHER TONGUE (OR NATIVE LANGUAGE) OF FOREIGN BORN
21.  Language spoken in home before coming to the United States.

CITIZENSHIP, ETC.
22.  Year of immigration to the United States.
23.  Naturalization.
24.  Whether able to speak English.

OCCUPATION AND INDUSTRY
25.  OCCUPATION:  Trade, profession, or particular kind of work, as spinner, salesman, riveter, teacher, etc.
26.  INDUSTRY:  Industry or business, as cotton mill, dry-goods store, shipyard, public school, etc.
27.  Class of worker.

EMPLOYMENT
Whether actually at work yesterday (or the last regular working day)
28.  Yes or No.
29.  If not, line number on Unemployment Schedule.

VETERANS
Whether a veteran of U.S. military or naval forces.
30.  Yes or No.
31.  What war or expedition?

32.  Number of farm schedule.

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More about Census numbers
In censuses having a long list of age categories (viz., 1830 and 1840), the transcriber may leave off trailing zeroes.  For example, in a case where the tally for white males and white females is actually:

0220001000000-1001010000000

the transcription may be truncated to

0220001-100101

This dropping of zeroes for empty higher age classes is why you see variable numbers of digits in some transcriptions of the 1830 and 1840 censuses.  But I have a suggestion…

To reduce errors in transcribing and reading long rows of numbers, it has long been standard practice in other fields of research and accounting to set long series of digits in threes.  In other words, the above number would be

022 000 100 - 100 101 000

Once you get in the habit of doing it this way, you'll find it's not only easier to extract numbers and faster to read them, you will find yourself making fewer errors.  Using the same series of numbers as an example, you can instantly tell that the "1" in the series of numbers for males is in the 7th column, without having to carefully count the digits, one-by-one, from left to right.  And by using the column number and the tables I've constructed, you can quickly and easily tell the age class and range of potential birth years of the individual.

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Memorial stone for King Erik I (c1060-1103), a.k.a., 'Erik the Good' or Erik Ejegod; Borgvold, Viborg Amt, DK (photo from WikimediaCommons by User:Calvin, 2007). Viking burial ground (700-1150 CE), Lindholm Høje, Aalborg Amt, DK (photo from WikimediaCommons by User:Bunnyfrosch, 2007).

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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